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Although weapons, armor and clothing in the Middle Ages may seem far removed from modern technology, they can all be linked to items we still use today. Since they were made by hand, these pieces retained a quality of simplicity. However, our ancestors quickly learned to further develop their goods, eventually creating brutally effective weapons, rugged armor and elaborate attire.



Daggers and Knives


Blunt or Cleaving Weapons

o  Flanged mace – Thick rod with a heavy metal head featuring spikes or protrusions for damaging armour.

o  Bec de Corbin – Long pole with a spike and hammerhead resembling a beak.

o  Horseman's pick – Pole weapon featuring an elongated spike at the butt of the hammerhead.

o   Bludgeon – Heavy, blunt weapon, similar to a club.

Spear and other Polearm and Poleaxe Weapons


o  Longbow

o English longbow – Large, powerful bow usually made from yew.

o  Recurve bow - Crossbow with tips that face opposite the archer when strung. 

o  Arbalest – Large steel crossbow, much stronger than its counterparts.

o  Ballista – Greek siege weapon structured like a crossbow, used to launch large rocks or darts.

o  Repeating crossbow – Chinese crossbow that is strung and shot at the same time, thus firing much faster than other crossbows.

o  Lian Nu, a multishot crossbow - Crossbow that shot several arrows at the same time.

o  Arquebus – Early form of the rifle that fired stone balls.

o  Culverin – Primitive version of a musket, later rebuilt as a cannon.

o  Musket – Long gun, loaded with gunpowder and round shot from the front of the gun.

o  Francisca – Sharp, arched axe head thrown to break enemy shields.

o  Nzappa zap – African iron axe with a short handle for throwing.

o  Tomahawk – Native American axe with a small but sharp metal head and short handle.

o  Javelin – Long spear with a pointed metal tip; light enough to travel some distance when thrown.


o  Fabric – Wool jackets called gambesons stuffed with extra cloth and arming doublets provided added protection under armor.

o  LeatherCuir Bouilli (boiled leather) was a tough material used for scale armor.

o  Chainmail – Small metal rings interlinked to create a piece of armor, usually protecting the head and chest.

o  Brigandine – Canvas jacket studdet with metal rivets.

o  Plate – Metal plates customised to fit together and cover the entire body including the full face.